Wednesday, January 5, 2011

Mizoram with the Highest Human Development in Northeast India

I came across this document which has been prepared by Delhi business Review in collobration with UNDP and I am very certain that this figures are right. With regards to Human Development Index, it basically deals with Literacy, Life expectancy & Living standard. It may come as a surprise to many that Mizoram tops the list, but to a certain extent, the reason that Mizoram has come out on top of the Human Development Index despite of proper infrastructure like Hydro Projects, Railway line, Industries, Factories, Medical & Engineering college because of the strong sense of community, the coming of Christianity and growth in literacy & awareness of healthy living practisce , the community action taken by Young Mizo Association, the strong check & balance against corruption taken by Church, the high level of urbanization due to grouping of villages during the MNF movement and many other factors.
Some of you may be surprised that big states like Assam do not come on top, but let's remember that Assam is a big state with lots of natural resource but much of the development work does not reach the urban & rural poor befitting it's size. It may also surprise some that Meghalaya does not have a very high development index, but Meghalaya is not Shillong, shillong maybe urbane & sophisticated but there is a huge gap between shillong & the other rural areas.

Some of the highlighted points from the study: 

Per Capita Income
Per capita state income of Mizoram (Rs. 17245), Arunachal Pradesh (Rs 17018) and Tripura (Rs. 16947) respectively is above the all India average (Rs. 16762) and the remaining states are below it. However, Nagaland is close to national average in respect of per capita state income. Assam has the lowest per capita (Rs 12529) income in NEI.
Pucca & Semi Pucca House (house made up of brick,cement,and iron etc. Many houses in NE are made of bamboo, wood, etc)
As far households in pucca and semi-pucca houses are concerned, all the concerned states lag behind all India average. 78.53 (highest among NE states) percent households in Mizoram reside either in pucca or semi-pucca houses followed by Nagaland with 66.69 percent. 61.16 percents of total households in Arunachal Pradesh dwell kuchcha or unclassified houses.

Access to electricity recorded among the states shows a mixed picture in relation to national average (55.85). Access to electricity is the highest in Mizoram (69.63), Nagaland (63.60) and Manipur (60. 04) respectively. In Assam, only one-quarter of households have access to electricity which is the lowest in NE region. Meghalaya and Tripura records much lower than all India average.
Income - Poverty Level
Mizoram records 80.53 percent of population living above poverty line. Rest of the states in NEI could not do better over national average (73.90 percent). In Manipur, 71.46 (2nd best in NE region) percent of the population live above minimum level of living. Incidence of poverty in Assam is the highest in Assam which is mirrored with 63.91 percent of population living above poverty line in the state.
States like Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, and Manipur have literacy rates which are higher than national average. Mizoram (88.49 percent) has the second best literate state in the country. Arunachal Pradesh (54.74 percent) has the least achievement in terms of literacy rate among states of NEI.

 Infant Mortality Rate
In regard to infant mortality rate (IMR), all the states of NEI baring Assam show better results as compared to the all India average (66 per 1000). IMR is the lowest in Mizoram (19) followed by Manipur (20). Assam (74) is the least achieved state in respect of IMR.
Hospital Bed
In Assam (least achiever), a hospital bed is available for 2059 persons followed by Tripura (1165 persons). The best achiever in NE Sate is Arunachal Pradesh where population served per hospital bed is 495 followed by Mizoram (536).
Drinking Water
77.5 percent of the households in Arunachal Pradesh have access to safe-drinking water which is close to all India average (77.9 percent). More than 60 percent of households in the states Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram donĂ­t have access to safe-drinking water. In Nagaland, only 46.5 percent of households have access to safe-drinking water. In Assam and Tripura it is 58.8 percent and 52.5 respectively.

Except for Mizoram, all the states in NEI can be termed as least developed in human development attainment. None of the states of NEI could score HDI value equal to or above 0.5. Even all India HDI falls bellow 0.5 score. Mizoram has achieved moderate/medium level of human development and has topped the list among states in NEI. The HDI value for the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura are 0.434, 0.498, 0.458, and 0.419 respectively. Manipur, however, fare better than national average (0.492). Assam is the lowest ranked state with a HDI value of 0.323. Scoring a value 0.378 of Meghalaya is slightly better than Assam in human development.

Low level of human development in north-eastern states of India only reflects the high human deprivation among its populace. Mizoram, of course is an exception with moderate development in human development. Two crucial factors responsible for a dismal performance are low per state capita income and paucity of medical facilities revealed through number of population served per hospital bed as well as high IMR. The low level of economic activity and dependence on central dole is responsible for low level of human development in the region. There is tardiness in economic growth. Health care facilities are in a gloomy state. Along with these features, there remains the alarming problem of scarcity of water in the region. This is mostly due to the physical and climatic features of the region - being hilly and tropical in nature and at the same time, failure of government to make provisions for safe drinking water to the average citizens. Baring Arunachal Pradesh and Assam which has its many river tributaries and streams, availability of safe drinking water is in a meagre position with more than half of the population being deprived of this organic need of life. There is also the trace of high incidence of poverty which only speaks about the high volume of shortfalls in human development. However, the single area which shows considerable progress in the region is literacy rate. Can it really catalyse the process of development in the region? 


Mizoram HDI as per DIPR Mizoram

Source: -
Anand, Sudhir and Sen, A.K.(1994), “Human Development Index: Methodology and Measurement”, Human Development Report, Office Occassional Paper 12, UNDP.
Basic Statistic of NER (2006), NEC, Shillong.
Census of India (2001), Registrar General of India ( SRS_Bulletins_links/SRS_Bulletin_Vol_36_Issue_2.pdf)
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Central Statistical Organisation (2004), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey of India (2001), Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
Haq, Mehbub ul (1995), “The Human Development Paradigm”, Haq’s Reflections on Human Development, Chapter 2 and 3, Oxford University Press, Reproduced in Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A. K. Shiv Kumar (eds), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006, pp.16-34.
Haq, Mehbub ul (1995a), “The Birth of Human Development Index”, Haq’s Reflections on Human Development, Chapter 4, Oxford University Press, Reproduced in Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A. K. Shiv Kumar (eds), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006, pp.127-137., viewed on March 27, 2009. Human Development Report (HDR) 1990 - 1992, UNDP, New York.
Ranis, Gustav, Frances, Stewart and Alejandro, Ramirez (2000), “Economic Growth and Human Development”, World Development, Vol.28, No.2, pp.197- 219.
Sen, A.K. (1989), “Development as Capability Expansion”, Journal of Development Planning, Vol.19, pp.41-58, Reproduced in Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A. K. Shiv Kumar (eds), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006, pp.3-16.
Statistical Abstract of India (2003), New Delhi.


  1. Hey what happened to your other post "Explaining Manipur’s Breakdown and Mizoram’s Peace: the State and Identities in North East India" ???? Its a great article.

  2. @ Illusionaire - ka rawn post ang, I am just editing it a bit. Thanks.

  3. tluang, dam tha zel maw? Infant mortality rate hi a dikhlel maithei..kan tang viau nangin a hniam chak vak lo...a chhan ni thei pakhat chu reporting system hi a tha tawh hle a,tunah pawh name based tracking , death audit( thi awm chuan a hmunah audit tih ngai)etc kan kalpui mek a...hman deuha thingtlang kilkhawr luttuk a thi report loh thin kha tam tawh lo a...aizawl is not mizoram ka la ti talh teh ang

  4. @ Fela - Dam tha e. Mizoram in Central a report a pek dan leh thil awm dan chu inthlau deuh hlek pawh a awm ka ring khawp mai, nang ni, Mizoram chhung a Doctor hna thawk chuan I hriat chian zawk ka ring.

  5. Good information Tluangte

  6. Tluanga, what you have written is very informative! Its a great pleasure to learn that Mizoram rank the highest in most of the indicators of HDI among the North East, sometimes even surpassing the national average! It is with deep sense of pride that I am reading this article of yours! Kudos!

  7. A van bengvarthlak ve ..i blog ka voikhat tlohna nia... ka zawngchhang don a ang khop mai..Thanks

  8. There is still lots to be done in the state, we might think this is enough but let me assure you that this is not enough... First and foemost we need to stop the corruption which still prevailed in our state,if we do this nothing can stop us from achieving a high grade development..Francis Lalremsiama Shillongight think this is enough but let me assure you that this is not enough... First and foemost we need to stop the corruption which still prevailed in our state,if we do this nothing can stop us from achieving a high grade development..Francis Lalremsiama Shillong

  9. Sample Registration Survey 2009...Published in Jan 2011 shows Infant Mortality rate in Small States as follows :
    Meghalaya - 59
    Himachal Pradesh - 45
    Uttarakhand - 41
    Mizoram - 36
    Sikkim - 34
    Andhra Pradesh - 32
    Tripura - 31
    Nagaland 26
    Manipur - 16
    Goa - 11

    Note that the Sample Registration Survey (SRS) is the Survey...dare i say.. most trusted and used in policy making

  10. tha hle mai..tlai khawhnu ah information ka mamoh avangin ka tloh ve chauh a, ka hmang trangkai don e. thnks.

  11. Hey, I'm quoting your blog post on a Quora answer :)

  12. And lolz, reading the first comment, I miss the days I was "illusionaire" :D