Monday, November 26, 2007

Mizoram 1949 to 1964


Zarkawt kawng Phei 1949 - Laipuitlang in the background



The Tough but Ugly vehicles in use in Mizoram - Vairengte Checkgate in 1955



Dawrpui Veng phei -1964 -with a View of Assam Rifles Ground

Flags of Different States of India

There are no official state flags in India because the states of India are unified under central government of India. The Constitutions of India does not encourage the concept of state flags as it could encourage the prospect of some states with the ambition of separating from India. Separatist Political parties are banned under the Constitution of India.

Since India’s Independence in 1947, it has survived as a single state and has not yet balkanized into separate states despite separatist ambitions in Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir & Punjab .


Flag of Mizoram

The white-blue flag with the red sun was a flag used by Seperatist - Mizo National Front from 1961 until 1986

The Mizo National Front (MNF)-led independence movement came about because of a famine known in Mizo history as 'Mautam Famine' . The Mizo National Famine Front, which was originally formed to help ease the immense sufferings of the people during the severe Mautam Famine. It was eventually converted into Mizo National Front (MNF) on October 22, 1961..The MNF Party took the ultimate step of declaring Mizoram a sovereign and independent state with effect from the midnight of February 28, 1966. The secessionist movement held on for about two decades. and came to an end in 1986. The MNF transformed itself into a regional political party subsequent to the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the government of India on June 30, 1986.
Flag of Tamil Nadu

Before India's independence there was a demand for an independent Dravidian Nadu (including Tamil Nadu & South India) by Periyar EV Ramaswamy for which the party Dravida Kazhagam was started. But after India’s independence, this demand was watered down for autonomous Dravidian states within the Indian union. Articles on Tamil Independence movement in Tamil Tribune.

Flag of Manipur
In 1949, the King Budhachandra was invited to, the capital of the Indian province of Assam, where, after an intense negotiations, he was forced to sign an agreement for annexation of the kingdom into India. It became a full-fledged State more than two decades later, in 1972. This delay in granting statehood caused discontent among the Meiteis who felt that their identification with ‘Hindu India’ brought them no political or economic benefits. This gave rise to secessionist tendencies among a section of the Meiteis and a number of separatist groups emerged thereafter. United National Liberation Front (UNLF) & People's Liberation Army Manipur are the two main Seperatist group.
Flag of Punjab
Flag of Khalistan
In Punjab, The Indian state of Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India's Punjab state.
Sikhs demanded an independent Sikh country to be called Khalistan. largely instigated by a few sikh leaders who believed sikhs too should get a new state after splitting of India and Pakistan based more upon religious lines.
Flag of Assam
In Assam the Movement is spearheaded by the Seperatist Movement ULFA (United Liberation Front Assam), was established on April 7, 1979, under the leadership of Paresh Barua. While secession from India was the declared goal, the organisation adopted an anti-foreigner plank since this was the popular issue gripping the masses in Assam. Pushing its objective of secession to the background, the ULFA operated within the AASU-AAGSP's agitation.
Flag of Nagaland
In Nagaland, the Movement is spearheaded by the Seperatist Movements NSCN IM and NSCN-K. Nagas were the first to raise the banner of revolt against the Indian government, on August 14, 1947, under the aegis of the Naga National Council (NNC) led by Angami Zapu Phizo.After the death of Phizo in 1990, there was another split in the NNC. NSCN (lM) and NSCN-K are the two main splinter groups.
Flag of Jammu & Kashmir
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, the princely state of Kashmir came under the paramountcy of the British Crown. Hari Singh was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent India and Pakistan. Both countries agreed that the rulers of princely states would be given the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or—in special cases—to remain independent. It was anticipated that the Maharaja would accede to Pakistan, when the British paramountcy ended. When the Mahajarj hesitated, Pakistan launched a guerilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten for assistance, and the Governor-General agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. The Maharaj signed the Instrument of Accession. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan controls a third of the region, Azad Kashmir. The movement for Independence is still going on spearheaded by JKLF ( Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front) & other separatist organizations.

Flag of Tripura
The Ganamukti Parishad movement led to the integration of the kingdom with India in 1949. Tripura has been badly affected by the partition of India and the majority of the population now comprises Bengalis with the Tribal Population Marginalized. Tripura has two main Seperatist group, the National Liberation Front of Tripura & Tripura Naitonal Volunteers.

The best way to counter this seperatist ambitions seems to be to recognize their culture, religion and language and not try to homogenize people with a single language or religion . It must also be pointed out that there must also be all round development throughout India and not only the states who have more population or Legislators.


Flag of Meghalaya
Meghalaya was formed by carving out the two districts of the state of Assam: the United Khasi and Jaintia Hills, and the Garo Hills on 21 January 1972. Meghalaya is a bit different from the other groups in that it does not have any organizations with separatist ambitions within the state but because it has 2 basic language speaking people with different cultures within a single state with lopsided development, the two major tribes - Khasi Jaintia and Garo's are fighting for a seperate state within the Indian Union. The Khasi Organizations demanding a seperate state are Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC) and for the Garo's Achik National Volunteer Council (ANVC), Liberation of Achik Elite Force (LAEF) & People’s Liberation Front of Meghalaya (PLF-M). The Garo's are more backward than Khasi's as the Capital City and most of the commercial activity takes places in Khasi Hills- Shillong.

States which have choosen to Integrate with the Indian Union:


Flag of Sikkim
Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to India in 1835, In 1947, a popular vote rejected Sikkim's joining the Indian Union and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru agreed to a special protectorate status for Sikkim.A referendum was held in which people (most of them nepalese) voted to join the Indian Union. A few weeks later on May 16, 1975, Sikkim officially became the 22nd state of the Indian Union, and the monarchy was abolished.



Flag of Orissa
In 1803, the British under the British East India Company occupied Orissa after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state in the Union of India.

Flag of the Maratha's (Maharashtra)
The Marathas and the British fought the three Anglo-Maratha wars between 1777 and 1818, culminating in the annexation of Peshwa-ruled territory in Maharashtra in 1819. After India's independence in 1947, the princely states were integrated into the Indian Union, and the Deccan States including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State. On May 1, 1960, Maharashtra came into existence when Bombay Presidency State was split into the new linguistic states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Flag of Andhra Pradesh
Flag of Nizam of Hyderabad
In Colonial India, Coastal Andhra became part of the British Madras Presidency.The Nizam of Hyderabad retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy, but after Indian Indipendence in 1947, the state of Hyderabad was forced to become part of the Republic of India in Operation Polo in 1948 as Hyderabad State.On 1 November 1 1956 Andhra State merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh

Flag of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is central to Indian culture and politics and was especially important in modern Indian history
Flag of Haryana
On 1 November 1966, Haryana was carved out of the mostly Hindi-speaking eastern portion of Punjab, while the mostly Punjabi-speaking western portion remained as current day Punjab.
Flag of Himachal Pradesh
On 18 December 1970 the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971

Flag of Rajasthan
Rajasthan had never been united politically until Mughal Emperor Akbar created a unified province of Rajasthan.The Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British in the early 19th century, accepting British sovereignty in return for local autonomy and protection from the Marathas.At the time of India's Independence in 1947, Rajasthan consisted of 18 Princely States, two chieftains and a British administered province of Ajmer-Merwara.
Flag of Karnataka
After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu and Kannada speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganization Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973
Flag of Madhya Pradesh
In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh is a combination of a lot of Princely states of Central India.

Flag of Travancore (Kerala) formerly Princely State of India under British Rule.
After India gained its independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on July 1, 1949.Government of India's November 1, 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the state of Kerala, incorporating Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Kasagrod.


Flag for Jainism ( Religon followed in Gujurati)
After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger unit Saurashtra, Kathiawar peninsula & Kutch.

Flag of Bengal ( Undivided Bengal before Partition)
British troops and their local allies captured Chandernagore in March 1757 and seriously defeated the Nawab on June 23, 1757 at the Battle of Plassey. The British installed their own Nawab for Bengal and extended their direct control in the south. The First Partition of Bengal happened Under Lord Curzon for Administrative purposes. As partition of British India into Hindu and Muslim dominions approached in 1947, Bengal again split into the state of West Bengal of secular India and a Muslim region of East Bengal under Pakistan. East Pakistan later rebelled against Pakistani military rule to become independent Republic of Bangladesh while West Bengal remains a part of India.
Flag of Jharkhandh
18 districts were carved out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000.

Flag of Goa (Portuguese Colony)
In 1510, Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Goa . The Portuguese intended it to be a colony. After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's demand to relinquish their control of its enclave. Resolution 1541 by the United Nations General Assembly in 1960 noted that Goa was non-self-governing and favoured self determination. Finally, on December 12, 1961, the Indian army with 40,000 troops moved in as part of Operation Vijay. Fighting lasted for twenty-six hours before the Portuguese garrison surrendered. Goa, along with Daman and Diu, was made into a centrally administered Union Territory of India. The UN Security Council considered a resolution condemning the invasion which was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Most nations later recognised India's action, and Portugal recognised it after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. On May 30, 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was elevated as India's twenty-fifth state.

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Monday, November 12, 2007

Yesteryear pictures of Mizoram -Travelling on Foot



Brave Warriors (Mizo Pasaltha) of Mizoram


Travelling in Mizoram even then was not easy - want proof, see below

Climbing Hills - barefoot

Breaking for food on the way

Crossing small streams on foot

Going down the slope

crossing bridges when the river is too deep

The swaying bridges over Mat River were not assuring either.



Hungry?

Old Pictures of Saichal & Zokhawsang



Land above the river of clouds - Saichal Village


Families

The Residents who lived in this villages


Zokhawsang Village



Mizo Naupang te

Helen Lowry - founder of Helen Lowry School



Aijal a la nih lai :-)



Mrs Lowry wading across a river


With Mizo Women


Her first Classroomd


Farewell to the Lowry's




Has grown into one of the Biggest and Finest School in Mizoram